The Russian Revolution (the final stage also known as October Revolution) was a political movement in Russia that climaxed in 1917 with the overthrow of the provisional government that had replaced the Russian Tsar system and led to the establishment of the Soviet Union, which lasted until 1991. This movement was led by Vladimir Lenin based upon the ideas of Karl Marxcommunism in the twentieth century.
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin , born Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov was a Russian revolutionary and communist politician who led the October Revolution of 1917. As leader of the Bolsheviks, he headed the Soviet state during its initial years (1917–1924), as it fought to establish control of Russia in the Russian Civil War and worked to create a socialist economic system.
Vladimir Lenin was born Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov on April 10, 1870 to a fairly average Russian family who lived in the costal town of Simbirs.
this son of a Russian nobleman was to have a profound effect on the future of Russia and, indeed, the world. His father had been the son of a serf who had risen to post of inspector of schools in Simbirsk. While his mother was the daughter of land owning physician.
However, unlike most of their neighbors, the Ulyanov’s had strong educational backgrounds. Lenin’s father worked for the Russian government as an inspector of public schools. And both his father and his mother placed high value on intellectual pursuits and urged their six surviving children to do the same. The children displayed above average intelligence and aptitude for learning, and perhaps partly because of this they received constant pressure to excel. Even in an academically gifted family, Vladimir stood above the rest. In school he received unusually high marks and displayed a personal drive separate from the exhortation of his parents.
As a politician, Vladimir Lenin was a persuasive orator, as a political scientist his extensive theoretic and philosophical developments of Marxism produced Marxism–Leninism, the pragmatic Russian application of Marxism.
Lenin practised law in the Volga River port of Samara for a few years, mostly land-ownership cases, from which he derived political insight to the Russian peasants’ socio-economic condition; in 1893, he moved to St Petersburg, and practised revolutionary propaganda. In 1895, he founded the League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class, the consolidation of the city’s Marxist groups; as an embryonic revolutionary party, the League were active among the Russian labour organisations. On 7 December 1895, Lenin was arrested for plotting against Tsar Alexander III.
The 1905 St. Petersburg Massacre spurred Lenin to advocate violent action. The Massacre itself occurred when Cossacks fired on peaceful protesters led by Father Georgi Gapon. This event led to several uprisings in Russia. Lenin returned to Russia for two years but the promised revolution did not happen as the Tsar made enough concessions to mollify the people. Lenin went abroad again.1917 was to finally see the revolution in Russia.
n 1903, the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (РСДРП) ideologically diverged as the Bolshevik and the Menshevik factions; the RSDLP party faction names “Bolshevik” (majority) and “Menshevik” (minority) derive from the narrow Bolshevik electoral defeat of the Mensheviks to the party’s newspaper editorial board, and to central committee leadership. The break partly originated from Lenin’s book What Is to Be Done? (1901–02), which proposed a smaller party organisation of professional revolutionaries, with Iskra in a primary ideologic role.
On 16 April 1917, Lenin arrived at the Finland Station, Petrograd, Russia, to assume command of the Bolsheviks, and published the April Theses (1917), calling for uncompromising opposition to the Provisional Government (March–November 1917).
At age forty seven Vladimir Ilich Lenin was named president of the Society of People’s Commissars (Communist Party). The problems of the new government were enormous. The war with Germany was ended immediately (his battle cry had been “Bread not War”). Though Russia lost the bread basket of the Ukraine to Germany this was soon regained when Germany was ultimately defeated in the war. Land was redistributed, some as collective farms. Factories, mines, banks and utilities were all taken over by the state. The Russian Orthodox Church was disestablished.
On 8 November 1917, the Russian Congress of Soviets elected the pragmatic Lenin as Chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars, as such, declaring that “Communism is Soviet power plus the electrification of the entire country” in modernising Russia into a twentieth-century country.
Obviously Lenin made a huge impact on society during his lifetime. However, the concepts and ideas that he nurtured in his countrymen led to an iron grip that eventually controlled not only Russia but Eastern Europe and Central Asia as well and lasted for over fifty years.
1923 saw him decline further as he had another stroke which left him paralysed and speechless. He never fully recovered and died of a cerebral haemorrhage on January 21, 1924.
Lenin died at 18.50 hrs, Moscow time, on 21 January 1924, aged 53, at his estate in Gorki Leninskiye. In the four days that the Bolshevik Leader Vladimir Ilyich Lenin lay in state, more than 900,000 mourners viewed his body in the Hall of Columns.
A revolution is impossible without a revolutionary situation; furthermore, not every revolutionary situation leads to revolution.
“A lie told often enough becomes truth”